How to make material for ligaments from tendons and animal skins
In the US Army, recruits are trained to make strong straps and ropes from the skins and tendons of animals.
• Remove tendons while cutting carcasses of freshly caught animals.
• Dry the tendons and disassemble them into separate fibers.
• Smooth tendons and pull the thread out of them. If you need a thicker thread, weave several tendons together.
• Remove the skin from the animal and scrape it away from fat and meat.
• Spread the skin on the ground and smooth out any creases.
• Cut the skin into straps.
• Soak the straps in water for 2–4 hours until they become elastic.
PARALLEL LINK. Serves for fastening together several logs parallel to each other. Place the desired number of logs parallel to each other. On the outer log, fasten the rope (1) with a dead tie. Then wrap all the logs with a rope five to six times, tightly arranging the turns (2). Between the logs, make two or three dividing coils with a rope (3). Complete the ligament with another dead strapping on the outer trunk (4). You can use a parallel bundle to make a tripod. To do this, connect the ends of the three logs with a parallel bundle, and then place them on the ground so that a stable tripod is obtained. As an alternative, you can use the A-shaped stand, connecting two logs (poles) at an angle with a parallel bundle, and fix their free ends in the ground so that they do not move apart. Before using a stand or tripod, make sure that it is well-fastened and will hold the load that you are going to apply to it. When using structures assembled using ligaments, regularly check the ropes for damage and abrasion.
Makeshift tools and weapons
Of the improvised materials that can be found in the surrounding area, the resourceful traveler can easily build the necessary tools, weapons, dishes and even clothes that will serve him no worse, and maybe even better than purchased ones.
The ability to make clothes and tools from improvised materials for yourself is a huge help for a person who finds himself in an extreme situation. Most of what you can do is, of course, the simplest tools and weapons, but they will greatly facilitate your main task - to stay alive. In addition, the realization that you yourself can do what you need is excellent moral support. If your equipment, tool or weapon breaks down, it can cause a severe blow to your optimism, but a good mood will quickly return to you as soon as you realize that you can replace the broken thing with another one made by your own hands. In the struggle for survival, the number of those things that you can do yourself is limited only by your skill and imagination.
If you get into a plane crash without losing a second, try to save as many items made from fabric as towels, tablecloths, carpet, curtains, pillows, seat covers, etc. from the wreckage. Almost any fabric can be used. for a berth, hammock or shelter - invent!
ROGOZ AND KAMYSH - NATURAL HEAT INSULATOR
Rogoz and reeds grow everywhere in the world, with the exception of the forests of the far North. These wild plants are common on the banks of ponds, lakes, river backwaters and other bodies of calm water. The tubular formation in the upper part of the stem of the cattail or reed has a porous structure and forms an air gap, providing thermal insulation no worse than eider down. For this, cattail must be placed between two layers of fabric.
THERMAL INSULATION. You can improve thermal insulation by wearing clothing in several layers (see the chapter on clothing). It is recommended to wear several pairs of socks one on top of the other. Between them you can lay a layer of dry moss or grass. Fallen dry foliage of trees and shrubs also has excellent heat-insulating properties. The foliage must be placed between two layers of matter and create from it a semblance of a pillow or feather bed. As a heat insulator, you can also use paper, fluff of animals and birds, animal hair.
PROTECTION AGAINST MOISTURE. You can protect yourself from rain and moisture using plastic bags, bags and cloths. In addition, use the bast of trees - separate it from the outer layer of the bark and place it under the clothes - it will protect the body from rain moisture. For the same purpose, you can also use a soft solid bark of trees and shrubs - for example, bark, which is easily separated.
To give clothing water-repellent properties, animal fat can be rubbed into its fabric, but do not use this rule in conditions of low temperatures and in frost - the heat-insulating properties are lost too much.
FOOTWEAR. Fine soles for makeshift shoes come from tires. Cut to shape
In long trips, full-time military uniforms may break or become unusable for another reason. British Special Aviation Service employees are trained, if necessary, to make clothing from available materials.
• By attaching long leaves and / or plant fibers to the belt and around the neck, you can get a kind of T-shirt and skirt.
• If you have a rug, sheet, or rug, you can build a poncho from them by cutting a hole in the middle for the head. A long poncho can be belted.
• You can easily stitch or stitch together pieces of scraped animal skin. It is better to wear clothes from skins with the fur inside - this improves the thermal insulation.
A pair of moccasins can be sewn from a piece of leather or skin. To do this, put the foot on the skin and cut out a piece of it with an allowance of 8 cm around the entire perimeter of the foot. Make holes around the perimeter of the piece, insert a cord or a strap into them and tighten around the legs wrapped in fabric. Tie the screed, and then wrap it several times around the ankle and tie it again for better fixation.
Tools and weapons
DUBA. Despite its simplicity, this is probably one of the most useful tools for you in an extreme situation. The baton is very simple to make and replace if it is broken. No matter where you go, try to get a club first. It will be worth your weight in gold.
It is best to make a club from a strong branch with a diameter of 5–6 cm and a length of about 75 cm. It can be used when inspecting snares and traps, finishing off animals that have fallen into them, and also as a weapon against slow game
How to make a weighted baton
One of the most technically equipped armies in the world teaches recruits how to make primitive tools. A weighted baton can be used to break a thick coconut shell, as a hammer, and also as a strike weapon against small animals.
• Do not use branches that are too heavy or too heavy or heavy to make.
• It is best to use a stone as a weighting material that is convenient for tying it to a baton, for example, in the form of an hourglass.
• For a club, find a straight branch of hardwood without knots.
• Fix the weighting agent in the handle - for this the handle needs to be split or cut at the end by half the diameter. After that, place the weighting stone in a split place or recess and securely tie it.
• Weighting ligaments should be checked regularly for scuffs and tears.
BAND SAWS. From the hauling saw that you must have with you in the travel bag, you can make a bow saw (Fig. 38 A) using a freshly chopped, well-springing knot or shoot as a beam. If you are more ambitious, you can make a semblance of a tension saw (fig. 38 B). The hauling saw can be used both for sawing and cutting something (see the chapter on your travel bag).
STONE TOOL. Flint, obsidian, quartz, slate, and other vitreous rocks can be used to make survival tools out of them. Good hammers are made from stones, and when used with and without a handle. Glassy stones can be squeezed and sharpened to obtain a sharp edge (blade). When sticking a stone with the help of another stone, the strike should be applied at an acute angle - otherwise your stone will perceive the force of the impact with all its mass and may simply split in half. Making stone tools requires some practice.
BONE TOOL. If you managed to get a large animal, then after cutting the carcass, do not rush to throw out the bones. Hooves and horns can be used as a trench tool, as well as hammers. The bone is pretty easy to handle with a knife. From the clavicle, for example, a saw can be made by splitting it along and cutting the teeth on the sharp edge. Even the skeletons of small animals can be useful - the ribs can be used as sewing needles (for this you need to sharpen one end of the bone, and burn a hole-eye in the other with a hot wire) or pins.
BOW AND ARROW. An unrestrained tree does not retain tension well, so you better make a few bows and use them one by one as the elasticity disappears. The best material for onions is yew wood, but you will have to use the types of wood that grow in the area where you found yourself. The body of the onion should be about 120 cm long, have a thickness of about 5 cm in the middle, and thin to 1.5 cm towards the ends. At the ends of the onions, make longitudinal cuts (about 1 cm deep) for attaching the bowstring. Lubricate the body of the onion with oil or grease.
A bowstring is best weaved from horsehair or female long hair (this is where a long braid can come in handy), but in principle any strong rope is suitable. When attaching to the bow body, the bowstring should have a slight tension (A) so that the bow has the maximum possible reserve of combat tension. It is best to attach a bowstring to a bow by means of a running loop and two half strapping (see the chapter on ropes and knots).
Arrows are made of straight wooden sticks about 60 cm long and 6 mm in diameter. The smoother the surface of the stick and the straighter it is, the better. The plumage of arrows can be made of paper, feathers, fabric or leaves, cut to give the desired shape. If you use feathers, each of them split in half on the trunk and leave 20 mm of the feather barrel in front and behind of the part that you are going to use for feathering the arrow in order to attach the feathering to the arrow. It is best to use a three-feathering plumage with an angle between keels of 120 degrees. From the rear end in the arrow, you need to make a 6-mm recess or cut for laying on a bowstring. The arrowheads can be made of tin (B), flint (C), a bone fragment (D), or simply burn on a fire until a tip (E) is formed. The tip is inserted into the split front end of the boom and attached
It is very important in an extreme situation to have a knife with you. You must have your own knife, but if you have broken or lost it, you can make a new one. For this:
• Find a piece of relatively soft metal that resembles a knife blade.
• Place the found piece of metal on a flat hard surface and with a hammer or stone give it the shape you want.
• On a flat sharpener, pull out the cutting edge of the knife and the tip.
• Build the handle for your solid wood knife and securely attach it to the blade.
Survival in extreme situations. SAS Experience
SPEARS AND HARPOONS are good weapons when hunting fish and game. The simplest spear is a pole with a pointed end (A). The disadvantage is the danger of easily breaking or dulling it. You can make the tip of the spear from the bone or hoof of an animal (B), flint or tin. You can also make a harpoon-trident: split the end of the pole into three parts and insert into it three stone or metal tips, looking in different directions (C) - this harpoon is especially good for stewing fish. For the same purpose, the tips can be made of bone (D).
FISHING HOOK AND FISHING LINE. Fishing hooks can be made from pins, pins, nails, bones or wood. To catch large fish, for example, pike or other fish, the feeding places of which are known and located near the coast, you can make fish snares: pass a thick rope through a hollow bamboo or fix it on the end of a long pole. Make a sliding loop at the end of the string. The loop must be carefully thrown over the fish found during feeding onto the tail and slowly tightened. See also the chapter on fishing.
ANIMAL SKIN PRODUCTION. Animal skins are an excellent material from which the strongest straps and cords are obtained. Dressing the skin is a rather complex and busy process, but the result will justify all your labor. Crafted leather can be used not only for the manufacture of straps and ties, but also as a material for shoes, quiver, knife sheath, etc.
First of all, all muscles and fat should be removed from the skin - large pieces are cut off, the remains are scraped off with a knife or flint. Then you need to remove the hair. To do this, a thick layer of charcoal is applied to the front of the skin. Moisten the coal with water, then roll the skin inward with charcoal and leave it in a cool, dry place for several days. When the hair begins to fall out (it is necessary to regularly check the skin so as not to miss the beginning of the process), roll the skin and pull it on a thick log. The hair is separated with a knife or sharp flint.
After removing the hair, clean the skin of dirt, rinse it and pull it on the frame. Dry the skin slowly, in the shade. The dried skin will zaduet, but it can be softened by wetting again.
SLINGSHOT. Find a strong stick with a fork and a strip of elastic material - the best thing for a combat slingshot is the rubber from the camera of the wheel of a bicycle, car, etc. In the middle of the rubber strip make a box for the shell and sew or tie it. Tie the ends of the strip to the horns of the fork. As shells, stones of various sizes can be used. With practice, you can turn a slingshot into a very serious weapon.
Survival in extreme situations. SAS Experience
Taking the slingshot with your left hand (if you're right handed), raise it to eye level, put a shell in the box, stretch the rubber band, holding the shell with your right hand, aim and release the shell.
SLING. Fold in half a wide trouser belt or a strip of cloth, put a shell (stone) in a loop, unwind a sling over your head and send the shell towards the target, releasing one of the ends of the belt. Shooting from a sling requires great skill and lengthy practice.
Using a slingshot or sling against birds, you can lay several stones at once in a weapon.
BOLA (Fig. 43 B). Wrap some stones with cloth, tie ropes about 1 m long to them, and tie the loose ends of the ropes into one knot. Holding the knot, unwind the bola over your head. Then throw it toward the target. In flight, the bola opens and covers a large area. It can be used against flying birds or to entangle the legs of animals, giving you a chance to kill the animal while it is immobilized
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